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Special section:
EA Books


Rodrigo Magalhães and Henderik A. Proper (2017)
Model-enabled design and engineering of organisations and their enterprises

This editorial is concerned with the need for an integrated approach to the design and engineering of organisations and their enterprises. Organisational Design originates from the organisational sciences, while the notion of Enterprise Engineering results from the engineering sciences (most notably information systems engineering, business (process) engineering, business process optimisation, and enterprise architecture). The Organisational Design and Enterprise Engineering journal (ODEE) is built on the premise that there should not be an either-or relation between Organisational Design and Enterprise Engineering, but rather an integrated approach that brings out the best of the two. A driver for the creation of the journal was the observation that the either-or mindset was (and still is) a major obstacle to the development of organisational thinking, and that this artificial divide must be abolished. In achieving more integration between Organisational Design and Enterprise Engineering, we suggest to take a model-enabled approach, where models should act as boundary objects between the social processes involved in organisational design processes, and the more analytical and rational side of enterprise engineering.
- Enterprise Architecture -

James Lapalme
Organizations (and organizing) are a technology that humans know very little about

The human-made technology that is used by organizations has played a crucial role in enabling humans to accomplish impressive endeavors. Despite the critical importance that organizations (or organizing) have played (and still play) in shaping the modern world, they are a technology that humans know very little about, and are still struggling to design and use adequately. The crux of the problem is that the study of organizations (including their design) does not fit neatly into the boxes that are modern academic disciplines. Another important series of issues concerns conducting multidisciplinary research across the silos of academic discipline. Crossing these silos is especially difficult when trying to cross-pollinate ideas as well as publish because of terminological, political, and social challenges. As such, the ODandEE journal is a necessary and important step in the right direction for addressing these issues by promoting research that is both multidisciplinary as well as oriented towards the proactive stance of design and engineering.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Bas van Gils (2017)
SciFi architecture

(Enterprise) Architecture has emerged as a key discipline in dealing with continuous change/transformation in which models play a key role. In most current modelling languages (e.g. ArchiMate) there is a clear distinction between business concepts and IT concepts. The question that is addressed in this paper is: is that still justified? It is argued that a more symbiotic relationship between human actors and computer actors, performing essential (business) behaviour side by side is the way to long term success. We also briefly touch upon the impact of such change in (modelling) approach on the way we deal with these transformations from a methodological point of view.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Marco Nardello, James Lapalme, Gustav Toppenberg, John Gøtze (2015)
How Does Enterprise Architecture Support Innovation?

Innovation is becoming increasingly important for Enterprise Architecture (EA) teams. Consequently, it is crucial that tools be developed to assist Enterprise Architecture teams when evaluating how (and how well) they are supporting innovation within the context of their enterprise. To date very little research has been completed that focuses on both EA and innovation. This paper presents an assessment tool to help EA teams evaluate and improve how they support innovation. The tool has been tested in a case study with a hi-tech firm and initial results are presented. In 2015 International Conference on Enterprise Systems (ES).
- Enterprise Architecture -

Measuring the Performance of Enterprise Architecture

Enterprise architecture teams often struggle with measuring and communicating the value of their function. We have implemented a set of simple and straight-forward performance indicators to address this problem.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Strategy Spectrum for Enterprise Engineering and Manufacturing

John Zachman blog post on Industry 4.0 challenges for enterprise architects.
- Industry 4.0 - Enterprise Architecture -

Disciplined Agile 2.X

Disciplined Agile (DA) is a process decision framework for lean enterprises. The main characteristics of this framework are that it: is a people-first, learning-oriented hybrid agile/lean approach; has a risk-value delivery lifecycle; is goal-driven; is enterprise aware; is tactically scalable at the team level; and strategically scalable across all of the enterprise.
- Enterprise Architecture - Software Development -

From EA to Enterprise Architecture 3.0

Ken Griesi and Beryl Bellman: The need for enterprises to efficiently and effectively deal with complexity and change has, perhaps, never been more prevalent than now.? Driving relevant and timely solutions for an enterprise demands a thorough understanding of the problem space and skillful bounding of the solution space prior to engineering a solution. Yet even as EAs faces these challenges, there are lessons to be learned from natural systems and an examination of CAS Theory. EA 3.0 stands upon the strong and steady shoulders of well-established principles that have survived the test of time. As John Zachman (2003) states, Seven thousand years of human history would establish that the key to complexity and change is architecture.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Ilia Bider, Erik Perjons, Mturi Elias, and Paul Johannesson
A fractal enterprise model and its application for business development

This paper suggests a new type of enterprise models called fractal enterprise models (FEM), with accompanying methodological support for their design. FEM shows interconnections between the business processes in an enterprise by connecting them to the assets they use and manage. Assets considered in the model could be tangible (buildings, heavy machinery, etc.) and intangible (employees, business process definitions, etc.). A FEM model is built by using two types of patterns called archetypes: a process-assets archetype that connects a process with assets used in it, and an asset-processes archetype that connects an asset with processes aimed to manage this asset (e.g., hiring people, or servicing machinery). Alternating these patterns creates a fractal structure that makes relationships between various parts of the enterprise explicit. FEM can be used for different purposes, including finding a majority of the processes in an enterprise and planning business change or radical transformation. Besides discussing FEM and areas of its usage, the paper presents results from a completed project in order to test the practical usefulness of FEM and its related methodological support.
- Enterprise Architecture - Systems Thinking -

From Enterprise Architect to Opportunity Architect

This white paper marks the conclusion of the Digital Transformation Research Project, which was jointly conducted by the Vlerick Centre for Excellence in Enterprise Architecture and our partner LoQutus. Through a series of case studies on 13 organisations, both member and non-member organisations of the Vlerick Centre of Excellence in Enterprise Architecture, our aim was to gain insights in an organisation’s digital transformation journey, and, more specifically, in the involvement of Enterprise Architecture (EA) in this process.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Towards the design of an agile enterprise architecture management method

Enterprises engage in dynamic environments and do need capabilities that will enable them to (re)configure and integrate existing capabilities or create new capabilities in order to remain viable and competitive in such environments. Enterprise Architecture (EA) by definition has the propensity to contribute to the agility of the enterprise in turbulent environments provided it is managed and guided by a methodic approach in a way that strengthens the capabilities with which the enterprise senses and responds to changes in its environment. However, the agility of the Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) func-tion and its relation with the agility of the enterprise as a whole has been spar-ingly studies in the EA literature. This thesis contributes to the EA literature by designing an agile EAM method that supports the agility of the EAM function and the agility of the enterprise as a whole. A number of steps were taken to this end. First, the factors that influence the agility of the enterprise, namely; agility drivers, agility providers and agility capabilities, were identified. Second, litera-ture on enterprise architecture, lean and agile principles and values, and a set of proposed theories were reviewed to form the theoretical foundation for the method design effort. Third, the lean and agile principles and values were adapted for EAM work. Fourth, the adapted lean and agile principles and values were consolidated into eight essential elements (EEs) that an agile EAM should possess in order to support the agility of the EAM function and the agility of the enterprise. Finally, an agile EAM method (Agile EAMM) was constructed to embody the EEs. The proposed Agile EAMM acts as a dynamic capability that provides the sensing capabilities, the leaning capabilities and the coordinating capabilities needed to effectively carry out enterprise architecting as an integrat-ing capability in transforming as-is architecture (existing operational capabili-ties) into to-be architecture (reconfigured operational capabilities). The compat-ibility of the Agile EAMM with existing methods was demonstrated using TO-GAF%u2019s ADM, and its efficacy was evaluated by means of an illustrative scenario. Conceptually, the Agile EAMM has the propensity to support the agility of the EAM function and the agility of the enterprise as a whole. Aside the Agile EAMM, the thesis contributes lean and agile principles and values applicable to EAM, the eight EEs, and areas for further research to the EA literature.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Reinventing Enterprise Architecture in a Digital World

The practice of Enterprise Architecture (EA) creates one enterprise view of the operating model, synchronizing stakeholders and creating an organizational blueprint that charts the future of the business and drives strategic decision-making around investments, priorities and M&A. As digital proliferation accelerates, EA is now far more valuable to organizations, and more difficult, than ever before. EA approaches need to adapt for a digital economy, and bridge the gap between business strategy and execution. Capabilities Architecture Planning (CAP) is an end-to-end EA framework that bridges the strategy-execution gap for large scale transformation efforts. The framework is particularly well-suited for a digital climate based on its cross-functional approach and agile development processes.
- Enterprise Architecture -

A Field Study of Technical Debt

In their haste to deliver software capabilities, developers sometimes engage in less-than-optimal coding practices. If not addressed, these shortcuts can ultimately yield unexpected rework costs that offset the benefits of rapid delivery. Technical debt conceptualizes the tradeoff between the short-term benefits of rapid delivery and long-term value. Taking shortcuts to expedite the delivery of features in the short term incurs technical debt, analogous to financial debt, that must be paid off later to optimize long-term success. Managing technical debt is an increasingly critical aspect of producing cost-effective, timely, and high-quality software products, especially in projects that apply agile methods.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Virksomhetsarkitektur - kartet til fremtidens helse

Enterprise Architecture for Healthcare. Norwegian video from Helse Midt Norge.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Why enterprise architects must be catalysts for change

The Enterprisers Project: I was recently shocked to hear that over 52 percent of companies that were on the Fortune 500 list in the year 2000 no longer exist. The enterprise architect (EA) role has been around for a long time, but in that time companies have never faced this amount of rapidly changing customer expectations and the battle against extinction that they do today. How can they stay relevant and even disrupt rather than being disrupted in this digital era? The new EA is the only practice that can truly give companies hope in navigating change to business models that are highly driven by and with technology.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Enterprise architecture is not TOGAF

Svyatoslav Kotusev, a researcher at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, questions whether the Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is the industry standard framework that enterprise architects really deserve.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Enterprise Architecture Planning 2.0

A new approach to digital strategy reinvents legacy IT by aligning it to a company%u2019s capabilities. The key lies in using the rigor of capabilities architecture planning directly, or adopting some of its tenets into an existing management approach, as a vehicle for collective mastery. Try to move your people, processes, technology, and partners into alignment as you carry out your capabilities architecture plan, making all of them parts of a single capabilities system. Your capabilities are your business, and technology should not be treated as a specialized field, set apart from the rest of your company: It is an inherent, inseparable aspect of what you do better than anyone else.
- Enterprise Architecture -

MISQE Special Issue about EA

With articles by Ross, Toppenberg, Tamm and more. MIS Quarterly Executive, Vol 14, No 4 (2015)
- Enterprise Architecture -

Mark Skilton (2015)
Building Digital Ecosystem Architectures

The design of digital solutions has become a pressing concern for practitioners faced with a plethora of technology impacting their business. From cloud computing to social networks, mobile computing and big data, to the emerging of Internet of things, all of which are changing how enterprise products, services, rooms and buildings are connected to the wider ecosystem of networks and services. This book defines digital ecosystems with examples from real industry cases and explores how enterprise architecture is evolving to enable physical and virtual, social, and material object collaboration and experience. The key topics covered include: Concepts of digitization Types of technological ecosystems Architecting digital workspaces Principles of architecture design Examples architecting digital business models Examples of digital design patterns Methods of monetization
- Enterprise Architecture - Digitalization -

Daniel Simon and Christian Schmidt (2015)
Business Architecture Management: Architecting the Business for Consistency and Alignment

This book presents a comprehensive overview of enterprise architecture management with a specific focus on the business aspects. While recent approaches to enterprise architecture management have dealt mainly with aspects of information technology, this book covers all areas of business architecture from business motivation and models to business execution. The book provides examples of how architectural thinking can be applied in these areas, thus combining different perspectives into a consistent whole. In-depth experiences from end-user organizations help readers to understand the abstract concepts of business architecture management and to form blueprints for their own professional approach. Business architecture professionals, researchers, and others working in the field of strategic business management will benefit from this comprehensive volume and its hands-on examples of successful business architecture management practices.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Digital Government: Poised for Growth

Pallab Saha in BW Smart Cities: With its ability to manage complexity, Government Enterprise Architecture has emerged as the essential means to drive public sector transformation.
- Enterprise Architecture - Digital Government -

Inji Wijegunaratne, George Fernandez, Peter Evans-Greenwood (2015)
Enterprise Architecture for Business Success

Enterprise Architecture (EA) has evolved to become a prominent presence in today’s information systems and technology landscape. The EA discipline is rich in frameworks, methodologies, and the like. However, the question of ‘value’ for business ;professionals remains largely unanswered – that is, how best can Enterprise Architecture and Enterprise Architects deliver value to the enterprise?
- Enterprise Architecture -

Gerben Wierda (2015)
Mastering Archimate - Edition II

This is a book about the ArchiMate® Enterprise Architecture modelling language (version 2.1). It combines a (well-received) beginner’s introduction to the language with many example patterns from the simple to the very complex. It does not just tell you how you can work with ArchiMate, it shows you: there are 220 pages full colour with 345 diagrams in the book.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Atul Apte (2015)
Transformative Enterprise Architecture: Guiding and Governing the Metamorphosis of Organizations and IT Ecosystems

The age of transformation is upon us. And for corporate IT departments, supporting and sustaining enterprise architecture requires a fundamentally new approach. Transformative Enterprise Architecture has the solution. It presents a new methodology that boldly redefines the characteristics and competencies that every large-scale IT team must develop to function successfully.
- Enterprise Architecture -

A Profession as Enterprise Architect

Terese Besker and Rolf Olsson MSc Thesis: The present trend shows that Enterprise Architecture (EA) is an essential resource to improve the organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and agility, both in the business and the technology environment. The Enterprise Architect professionals who are working in this area are thus essential for operations in organizational transformation and development, therefore, vital to understand the ambition of this profession. There are several academic studies available concerning EA. However, there are few empirically based studies which in particularly reflect the Enterprise Architect profession. This study, examining the profession of the Enterprise Architect, sheds new light on what these professionals do within their organization on an every-day basis and how this view differs from how the profession is described in existing research. The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare how the Enterprise Architect profession is described both by academics and by empirically collected data. We perceive five topics that are essential to a comprehensive, rich picture of the profession; the role, competence, power, style of acting and main focus. The study is based on an initial literature survey and an empirically based study based on interviews with Enterprise Architects in ten large Swedish organizations. Our interviews show that the architect's work in several aspects is consistent with the literature but in other respects, an evident dissimilarity is revealed. One of the most obvious differences is the architect's mindset in terms of working in a reactive or a proactive way. Our interviews show that architects are working primarily in a reactive approach both in terms of how their roles are described but also in relation to how the EA function is set up. Although it is evidential that most of the architects’ work is based on a reactive basis, the architects claim it would be inappropriate with a purely proactive approach. Nevertheless, the establishment of the EA as a function within the interviewed organizations seems to have been well implemented, where architectural principles are determined as mandatory, while an interesting finding is that major or radical IT investments appears to overrule the architectural principles and is part of top management discretion only.
- EA Profession Advancement - Enterprise Architecture -