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From problems to critical success factors of enterprise architecture adoption

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are one of the key vehicles in enabling the reform of public administration. Public organizations have introduced enterprise architecture (EA) methods to manage their ICT assets and to improve the quality, efficiency and interoperability of public services. In Finland, the Act on Information Management Governance in Public Administration, making the use of EA mandatory for the central and local government institutions, was enacted in late 2011. For the present, however, concrete results from EA efforts are moderate. Most of the public organizations are still struggling with the adoption of this new policy. Not many studies of the problems, or the critical success factors (CSF) of EA adoption process can be found, even though this understanding is essential in enabling any later stages of the EA life cycle. The goal of our research was first, to identify the problems that organizations encounter while adopting EA and then, by analyzing these problems, to develop a model of CSFs of EA introduction for public organizations. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected over the span of several years, using different techniques in a triangulation setting. Grounded theory (GT) was used as an approach for the data collection and analysis. GT allowed us to inductively develop an empirically grounded theoretical model about this substantive area that lacks previous studies. The result, the proposed “3D” model characterizes the critical problems in relation to the classes of CSFs. This raises the argument that the CSFs of EA adoption must be of dynamic nature. The detailed content of the CSF are specific to an organizational environment. They are also interrelated, and a strong CSF can be exploited to reinforce the weaker ones. The research contributes to the theoretical bodies of knowledge of EA and CSFs of organizational change invoked by ICT developments. It also suggests how the current capabilities of an organization can be turned into drivers of successful EA adoption. Therefore, the results are of interest to researchers, as well as practitioners. PhD disseration.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Relating business modelling and enterprise architecture

Lucas Onno Meertens PhD disseration. This thesis proposes a methodology for creating business models, evaluating them, and relating them to enterprise architecture. The methodology consists of several steps, leading from an organization’s current situation to a target situation, via business models and enterprise architecture. Currently, increasing amounts of businesses rely on IT systems to do their business. However, success rates of IT implementations projects are low. Difficulties exist in aligning existing IT systems with business objectives. Individually, business modelling or enterprise architecture does not seem to solve the problem completely. However, each of their weaknesses seems to be countered by the strengths of the other. Our proposed methodology supports bringing an organization from its current situation to a target situation. The developed process steps help to formalize business modelling, and at the same time extend enterprise architecture to be more business focussed and easier to use. This would support our hypothesis that combining enterprise architecture and business modelling leads to better enterprise architecture and business models, and therefore, more successful business-IT innovations.
- Enterprise Architecture -


Jason Bloomberg (2013)
The Agile Architecture Revolution: How Cloud Computing, REST-based SOA, and Mobile Computing are Changing Enterprise IT

5    (3 votes)
A sneak peek at up–and–coming trends in IT, a multidimensional vision for achieving business agility through agile architectures The Agile Architecture Revolution places IT trends into the context of Enterprise Architecture, reinventing Enterprise Architecture to support continuous business transformation. It focuses on the challenges of large organizations, while placing such organizations into the broader business ecosystem that includes small and midsize organizations as well as startups. Organizes the important trends that are facing technology in businesses and public sector organizations today and over the next several years Presents the five broad organizing principles called Supertrends: location independence, global cubicle, democratization of technology, deep interoperability, and complex systems engineering Provides a new perspective on service–oriented architecture in conjunction with architectural approaches to cloud computing and mobile technologies that explain how organizations can achieve better business visibility through IT and enterprise architecture Laying out a multidimensional vision for achieving agile architectures, this book discusses the crisis points that promise sudden, transformative change, unraveling how organizations spending on IT will continue to undergo radical change over the next ten years.
- Service-Oriented Architecture - Enterprise Architecture - Cloud Computing -


P A Woodworth (2013)
A Reference Architecture for Enterprise Architecture: According to EA3, Documented in EA3

7    (4 votes)
This book endeavours to help further lift the discipline of EA by providing a reference architecture for an EA function and taking an EA approach to its documentation and analysis to help demonstrate, explain and rationalize EA and the EA function. In doing so outlining the key drivers and components of an EA function, including the influences on and objectives of EA, and the business and technology processes and resources required and used to address these. Keeping on point and avoiding being pushed into related but non-EA activities; buying time to do things properly while still being responsive and agile to changes in enterprise drivers; fitting into the organisation's governance structure; building a capability not just delivering a series of non-repeatable, point-sensitive EA services are just some of the many challenges facing Enterprise Architects today. While there are a number of useful and informative EA frameworks and books available guiding organisations on what EA should deliver, organisations and individuals are left without the one thing they espouse for the enterprise at large, a target architecture for the EA function that can be used to best align it to their enterprise and allow them to plan and oversee its formation and change effectively. This leaves many decisions to be made in the absence of sound, communicable, measurable and transparent views as to why and what to strive for in doing EA. As a reference architecture typically describes a complete target architecture, and a complete architecture can take a long time to develop and fine tune, more than can be expected within a single release, project or time frame that initial outcomes are required by EA stakeholders and customers, the book takes a look at the different capabilities or themes that might be focused on to allow for the different needs and expectations enterprises have from EA. To ensure the reference architecture incorporates best practices in EA, it is built on the concepts and principles of EA outlined in Dr Scott Bernard's book, An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture, EA3, and his EA training program and certification courses. Both of which in turn build on the EA experiences and practices of EA practitioners over near to three decades.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge (EABOK)

Enterprise Architecture practice is growing quickly, accelerating in pace and adoption throughout the world but lacks an authoritative, unbiased place to learn about the wide array of experiences, methods and practices, and experiences. The EA Body of Knowledge is a unique endeavor created by people who believe, first and foremost, that the best way to gather the knowledge about Enterprise Architecture is to ask practitioners and researchers to simply share what they know, what they do, and how well it works. This is practical knowledge. The EABOK is home to terms and concepts, standards and practices, methods and patterns, and perspectives on what works... and what fails to work. We are striving first for breadth and usefulness. Consistency will evolve with maturity. The EABOK Consortium has senior leaders in the Enterprise Architecture community, including representatives from industry, government, and professional associations. But we are not looking only to ourselves for knowledge. On the contrary! While we have seeded the EABOK, we believe it will not be complete, actionable, and balanced, until we have input and insight from practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders. We aspire to have the EABOK become an ever-evolving map to insightful and useful information about enterprise architecture. Whether you are an experienced practitioner, an aspiring architect, or just someone interesting in this fascinating field, we welcome you to join our consortium hosted by MITRE and become a part of the Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge.
- Bodies of Knowledge (BoK) - Enterprise Architecture -

The Evolving Nature of the EA Profession

The theme for this issue of Architecture & Governance Magazine is The Evolving Nature of the EA Profession. As a relatively young discipline, enterprise architecture has come a long way. Interest levels continue to be high, as demonstrated by the readership and the enthusiastic support of our author community. But to be fair, though, universal adoption of EA isn%u2019t as widespread as it should be given its potential. As a result, we see the EA practitioner community pursuing two strategies: One is to double down on education and standards, and to codify EA practices into a consistent and repeatable body of knowledge. The second is to innovate and be progressive by evolving the EA practice into high-value opportunities using new approaches. This editorial board believes that these two ideas are not mutually exclusive and, in fact, are both essential to the success of the profession. In this issue, our contributing authors explore both ideas.
- Enterprise Architecture -


John Gøtze and Anders Jensen-Waud (2013)
Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking in Architecting Enterprises

9    (15 votes)
Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking is a valuable way of thinking about the viable enterprise and how to architect it. Edited by John Gøtze and Anders Jensen-Waud, the book features contributions from 32 international experts in the fields of systems thinking and enterprise architecture. Contributors: Adrian Campell, Alex Conn, Dennis Sherwood, Don deGuerre, Erik Perjons, Gene Bellinger, Harold Bud Lawson, Ilia Bider, Jack Ring, James Lapalme, James Martin, Jan Dietz, Jan Hoogervorst, Janne J. Korhonen, John Morecroft, Leo Laverdure, Linda Clod Præstholm, Mesbah Khan, Mikkel Stokbro Holst, Namkyu Park, Olov Östberg, Olusola O. Oduntan, Patrick Hoverstadt, Per Johannisson, Per-Arne Persson, Peter Sjølin, Rasmus Fischer Frost, Sally Bean, Tom Graves, and Tue Westmark Steensen.
- Systems Thinking - Enterprise Architecture -


Stefan Bente, Uwe Bombosch, Shailendra Langade (2012)
Collaborative Enterprise Architecture: Enriching EA with Lean, Agile, and Enterprise 2.0 Practices

7    (3 votes)
Ever-changing business needs have prompted large companies to rethink their enterprise IT. Today, businesses must allow interaction with their customers, partners, and employees at more touch points and at a depth never thought previously. At the same time, rapid advances in information technologies, like business digitization, cloud computing, and Web 2.0, demand fundamental changes in the enterprises' management practices. These changes have a drastic effect not only on IT and business, but also on policies, processes, and people. Many companies therefore embark on enterprise-wide transformation initiatives. The role of Enterprise Architecture (EA) is to architect and supervise this transformational journey. Unfortunately, todays EA is often a ponderous and detached exercise, with most of the EA initiatives failing to create visible impact. The enterprises need an EA that is agile and responsive to business dynamics. Collaborative Enterprise Architecture provides the innovative solutions todays enterprises require, informed by real-world experiences and experts' insights. This book, in its first part, provides a systematic compendium of the current best practices in EA, analyzes current ways of doing EA, and identifies its constraints and shortcomings. In the second part, it leaves the beaten tracks of EA by introducing Lean, Agile, and Enterprise 2.0 concepts to the traditional EA methods. This blended approach to EA focuses on practical aspects, with recommendations derived from real-world experiences. A truly thought provoking and pragmatic guide to manage EA, Collaborative Enterprise Architecture effectively merges the long-term oriented top-down approach with pragmatic bottom-up thinking, and that way offers real solutions to businesses undergoing enterprise-wide change. This title covers the latest emerging technologies affecting business practice, including digitization, cloud computing, agile software development, and Web 2.0. It focuses on the practical implementation of EAM rather than theory, with recommendations based on real-world case studies. It addresses changing business demands and practices, including Enterprise 2.0 , open source, global sourcing, and more. It takes an innovative approach to EAM, merging standard top-down and pragmatic, bottom-up strategies, offering real solutions to businesses undergoing enterprise-wide changes.
- Enterprise Architecture -

The EA Pad

One-Stop Shop for Enterprise Architects
- Enterprise Architecture -


Milan Guenther (2012)
Intersection: How Enterprise Design Bridges the Gap Between Business, Technology, and People

10    (3 votes)
Many organizations struggle with the dynamics and the complexity of today’s social ecosystems connecting everyone and everything, everywhere and all the time. Facing challenges at the intersection of business models, technical developments and human needs, enterprises must overcome the siloed thinking and isolated efforts of the past, and instead address relationships to people holistically. In Intersection, Milan Guenther introduces a Strategic Design approach that aligns the overarching efforts of Branding, Enterprise Architecture and Experience Design on common course to shape tomorrow’s enterprises. This book gives designers, entrepreneurs, innovators and leaders a holistic model and a comprehensive vocabulary to tackle such challenges. The Enterprise Design framework cuts through the complexity of Strategic Design work, explains how to navigate key aspects and bridge diverging viewpoints. In 9 examples, the author looks at the way companies like Apple, SAP, BBVA, and Jeppesen (a Boeing Company) apply design thinking and practice to shape their enterprises. Moving from strategy to conceptual design and concrete results, Intersection shows what is relevant at which point, and what expertise to involve.
- Enterprise Architecture - Design Thinking - Enterprise Design -


Rien Dijkstra, John Gøtze and Pieter van der Ploug (2013)
Right Sourcing: Enabling Collaboration

8    (12 votes)
Right Sourcing - Enabling Collaboration puts forward the proposal that the modern enterprise must fundamentally rethink its 'sourcing equation' to become or remain viable. By presenting perspectives on sourcing from 21 different contributors, the editors hope to enable and inspire readers to make better-informed decisions.
- Management - Markets - Enterprise Architecture -

Project Compliance with Enterprise Architecture

8    (1 vote)
This research project set out to identify effective practices and models for working with projects that are required to comply with Enterprise Architecture (EA), and investigate the benefits and drawbacks brought about by compliance. Research methods used are canonical action research, a statistical survey study (n=293), focus groups and a structured literature review. Concrete contributions include a descriptive framework of different types of architecture (such as enterprise, domain and project architecture), best practices and an artifact and process model for projects conforming to EA (targeted at practitioners), a conceptualization of compliance (including four dimensions and compliance checks), a statistical explanatory model for EA conformance and benefits, and a typology of compliance tactics. In addition, the research has contributed to our knowledge on Enterprise Architecture and compliance in general. We will shortly elaborate on this below. The statistical study showed that most of the identified techniques are used in practice. Important compliance tactics in this respect are: knowledge exchanges, providing advice, working with a PSA, conducting compliance assessments, and having management propagate EA. Financial sanctions and disincentives proved to be barely used in practice. The results also showed that projects benefit in several ways from working with EA, namely delivering the desired quality more often, being better equipped to deal with risk and being able to manage complexity more effectively. Several of the hypothesized project benefits could not be confirmed, however, such as exceeding deadlines and budgets less often, and delivering the required functionality more frequently. EA simply did not have a significant effect on these aspects. The results also demonstrated that EA has a downright negative impact on the speed of initializing projects, probably due to EA introducing additional project complexity (e.g. getting acquainted with abstract EA prescriptions, dealing with additional stakeholders and balancing possible conflicts of interests). The results furthermore showed that several organization-wide benefits are achieved due to EA, namely accomplishing enterprise goals, gaining insight into organizational complexity, achieving integration, standardization and deduplication of related processes and systems, depicting a clear image of the future situation and providing a communicational frame of reference. Hypothesized organizational benefits not confirmed are achieving business/IT alignment and agility, controlling costs and complexity, and co-operating with other organizations effectively and efficiently. The statistical results furthermore showed that, although most techniques identified are used in practice, only three have a significant impact on achieving compliance with EA: compliance assessments, management propagation and assisting projects. Compliance of projects subsequently results in an increased ability to achieve EA-related benefits. At the organizational level, conformance has significant effects on achieving business/IT alignment, accomplishing enterprise-wide goals and integrating, standardizing and deduplicating processes and systems. At the project level, conformance is shown to have significant effects on the ability to manage project complexity, and delivering the desired quality and functionality. Interestingly, project compliance with EA has the strongest effects on organization-wide benefits, whereas projects themselves benefit to a lesser extent and in more subtle ways. In any case, the project level is shown to play an important part in achieving organization-wide goals, which is one of the key goals of EA.
- Enterprise Architecture -


Chris Potts (2012)
DefrICtion: Unleashing your Enterprise to Create Value from Change

9    (6 votes)
Michael is CEO of a $64 billion global corporation, driving a strategy founded on productivity and growth. Despite having 'best practices' in place, spearheaded by Finance, he's convinced that many of the company's investments in change are still not delivering the most value they can, or even the value they promised. Late one night, while reading a hard-to-believe Business Case for an IT transformation, he makes it his business to find out why. With the help of his inner-circle of trusted executives and managers, and the serendipitous appearance of a friend-of-a-friend, Michael discovers what's been missing all along in the Boardroom, the businesses, and the company culture. He is faced with deciding what it's worth to sort things out, once and for all, with a strategy that combines Enterprise Architecture with Investing in Change. In this conclusion to the trilogy that began with FruITion and continued with RecrEation, Michael finds that the consequences for everyone are part cultural, part structural, and part operational. They mean challenging some of the orthodoxies that were supposed to solve the problem but have made things worse instead. What will he choose to do?
- Enterprise Architecture -


Scott A Bernard (2012)
An Introduction To Enterprise Architecture: Third Edition

8    (14 votes)
An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture is the culmination of several decades of experience that I have gained through work initially as an information technology manager and then as a consultant to executives in the public and private sectors. I wrote this book for three major reasons: (1) to help move business and technology planning from a systems and process-level view to a more strategy-driven enterprise-level view, (2) to promote and explain the emerging profession of EA, and (3) to provide the first textbook on the subject of EA, which is suitable for graduate and undergraduate levels of study. To date, other books on EA have been practitioner books not specifically oriented toward a student who may be learning the subject with little to no previous exposure. Therefore, this book contains references to related academic research and industry best practices, as well as my own observations about potential future practices and the direction of this emerging profession.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Leveraging Governance to Sustain Enterprise Architecture Efforts

An Oracle White Paper on Enterprise Architecture. July 2012: Anecdotally, most Enterprise Architecture (EA) professionals probably rose through IT ranks in their careers. And most IT professionals like to experiment and work with computer-based technology. They like to solve problems and make things better. Whether its building the Linux kernel or writing Java code, there is a thrill with making something work. Setting up rules, procedures, and processes to regulate such activities can be counter intuitive for some individuals. They might feel constrained and even have their very agility jeopardized when delivering a solution. This paper will discuss a number of technologies and technology-related phenomena being introduced to corporations. For each, sample issues and questions will be addressed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the attributes of a quality EA program and how to instill a holistic, governance-driven technology/capability adoption process.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Reasons for resistance to enterprise architecture and ways to overcome it

1    (1 vote)
Jan K. Gravesen: Since the mid-1990s, enterprise architecture has been evolving as an independent design discipline in the area between strategy and architecture. Although interest has been growing in recent years, the discipline is still considered immature, and many enterprises remain ambivalent or skeptical. Jan Gravesen discusses the considerable value that enterprise architecture can bring and how it can be successfully implemented to overcome much of that organizational skepticism.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Conway's Law Revisited: Successfully Aligning Enterprise Architecture

David M. Dikel, David Kane: For investments in enterprise architecture to pay off, they must be based on a clear understanding of the organization. Whatever approach you choose to implement your enterprise strategy, an understanding of Conway's Law can help to make your alignment efforts successful.
- Conway's Law - Enterprise Architecture -

DO YOU THINK? OR DO YOU KNOW? Improving State Government Operations Through Business Analytics

9    (1 vote)
NASCIO Enterprise Architecture Committee, February 2010: Business analytics provides an evidence-based approach for decision making. With the current emphasis on transparency and visibility into the operations of government, government leaders need to anticipate more questions and evaluation related to not only what decisions are being made, but also what rationale was applied in making those decisions. As stated in this issue brief, intuition alone is not adequate for evaluating alternatives and making decisions. Effective implementation of a business analytics capability will promote an enterprise-wide culture of fact-based decision making. State government is encouraged to seriously look at business analytics as a means for fully understanding current circumstances and make predictions about the future. The predictive nature is particularly important as we continue to face ongoing fiscal challenges and increasing demand for state government services.
- Enterprise Architecture - Business Intelligence -

DO YOU THINK? OR DO YOU KNOW? PART II: The EA Value Chain, The Strategic Intent Domain, and Principles

10    (1 vote)
NASCIO Enterprise Architecture Committee, September 2010: Investment in business intelligence and business analytics must be driven by enterprise strategic intent. Proper leverage of analytics should start with a clear understanding of the outcomes state government is trying to achieve. This issue brief presents the rationale for analytics using the NASCIO Enterprise Architecture Value Chain as a framework for organizing the thinking and the questions which eventually drive investment in analytics capabilities. It builds on the foundational concepts discussed in NASCIOs first issue brief on this subject, and strongly recommends an enterprise approach. Without an enterprise approach to analytics, investment across the enterprise is un-orchestrated and uncoordinated. That creates redundant investment in tools and training, and creates barriers to cross line of business collaboration. State government can not afford redundant and disconnected investment. One of the values of enterprise architecture is the management, optimization and simplification of investment within state government. Proper investment and application of analytics is essential to deploying effective and efficient government services. Finally, the level of complexity of analytical methods and tools depends on the complexity of the decisions and the issues.
- Business Intelligence - Enterprise Architecture - Government EA -

Common Approach to Federal Enterprise Architecture

10    (2 votes)
The Common Approach to Federal Enterprise Architecture and FEAF-II was launched publicly on May 2, 2012 in an important memo from Federal CIO VanRoekel. The Common Approach is clearly inspired by the EA3 Cube, and replaces/upgrades FSAM..
- Government EA - Enterprise Architecture -

EA Glossary

Simple web app for looking up terms and definitions in EA. EA3 Cube, Common Approach and ISO42010.
- Enterprise Architecture - Definitions -


Richard Hunter and George Westerman (2009)
Real Business of IT: How CIOs Create and Communicate Value

3    (29 votes)
If you're a general manager or CFO, do you feel you're spending too much on IT or wishing you could get better returns from your IT investments? If so, it's time to examine what's behind this IT-as-cost mind-set. In The Real Business of IT, Richard Hunter and George Westerman reveal that the cost mind-set stems from IT leaders' inability to communicate about the business value they create-so CIOs get stuck discussing budgets rather than their contributions to the organization. The authors show how to communicate about these forms of value with non-IT leaders-so they understand how your firm is benefiting and see IT as the strategic powerhouse it truly is.
- IT Governance - Enterprise Architecture -

Two IT gurus face off on value of enterprise architecture frameworks

Who says enterprise architecture frameworks are worse than useless? Vivek Kundra, that's who. The former CIO of the United States made a blistering case against enterprise architecture in his keynote at the 43rd Society for Information Management (SIM) meeting this week. It came in a talk on his efforts to reform the federal IT program with initiatives like IT dashboards and a cloud-first policy. The remarks were especially exciting because they followed a passionate argument for the value of enterprise architecture by John Zachman, an early pioneer of enterprise architecture frameworks.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Zachman Framework 3.0 Announced Tues, Aug. 23

Ron Ross offers the first public download of the new version of Zachman's framework, the Enterprise Ontology.
- Enterprise Architecture -


Danny Greefhorst, Erik Proper (2011)
Architecture Principles: The Cornerstones of Enterprise Architecture

3    (20 votes)
Enterprises, from small to large, evolve continuously. As a result, their structures are transformed and extended continuously. Without some means of control, such changes are bound to lead to an overly complex, uncoordinated and heterogeneous environment that is hard to manage and hard to adapt to future changes. Enterprise architecture principles provide a means to direct transformations of enterprises. As a consequence, architecture principles should be seen as the cornerstones of any architecture. In this book, Greefhorst and Proper focus on the role of architecture principles. They provide both a theoretical and a practical perspective on architecture principles. The theoretical perspective involves a brief survey of the general concept of principle as well as an analysis of different flavors of principles. Architecture principles are regarded as a specific class of normative principles that direct the design of an enterprise, from the definition of its business to its supporting IT. The practical perspective on architecture principles is concerned with an approach to the formulation of architecture principles, as well as their actual use in organizations. To illustrate their use in practice, several real-life cases are discussed, an application of architecture principles in TOGAF is included, and a catalogue of example architecture principles is provided. With this broad coverage, the authors target students and researchers specializing in enterprise architecture or business information systems, as well as practitioners who want to understand the foundations underlying their practical daily work.
- Enterprise Architecture - Principles -




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